A Brief History of Computer Hacking

In the 1960s, a group of computer programmers and engineers known as the hackers developed a set of principles for using computers. These principles included sharing information and working together to improve technology. As the years went on, hacking became more associated with illegal activities. such as breaking into computer systems to steal data or to commit fraud. However, there are still many legitimate hackers who use their skills to improve technology and make the world a better place. Here are some of the features of hacking that you should know about before it becomes an issue in your life.

  • White Hat Hackers: these are people who hack with good intentions and have an understanding of what they’re doing so that they don’t do any damage while they’re in a system. * Black Hat Hackers: these people hack illegally without knowing what they’re doing, which can lead to catastrophic results like taking down websites. * Script Kiddies: these people copy scripts written by other hackers without understanding. how it works. * Cyber Terrorism: this is when terrorists take advantage of vulnerabilities in computer networks to cause harm to innocent victims.
    For example, in 2001 terrorists used emails containing infected attachments to break into thousands of machines running Microsoft operating systems. They then sent messages containing poisoned web links to Microsoft customers asking them to click on them. The purpose was for them to download a program that would start monitoring every keystroke typed and send back sensitive information from all of the infected machines – the network was hijacked (Keiser). So now you know! It’s important not only to keep yourself safe from viruses but also. your devices connected through Wi-Fi at home! If someone hacked into my device and I didn’t protect myself with strong passwords, I could be liable for identity theft if they stole my social security number or credit card numbers.

what is hacking

Hacking is a term that is used to describe the act of breaking into a computer system or network. There are different types of hacking, but the main features of hacking include:
-Gaining unauthorized access to a system or network
-Stealing data or information
-Altering or disrupting system operations
-Causing damage to hardware or software
-Creating and/or spreading viruses and other malicious code
Hacking can be done for various reasons, such as to gain financial information, to steal trade secrets, to cause damage or disruption, or simply for the challenge. Whatever the reason, hacking can have serious consequences for both the individual and the organization involved. Financial losses due to hacking are estimated at $400 billion in the U.S. each year. while data breaches lead to an average cost of $3.86 million per incident in 2017 according to the Ponemon Institute’s 2018 Cost of Data Breach Study. United States report. It found that 58% of respondents had experienced some form of cyber attack over the past 12 months. with a median cost per company reaching $3.5 million. Hackers may try to use your email account or personal device to access sensitive information like passwords, bank account numbers, social security numbers, health records, credit card numbers and more. Many hackers target employees because they often know how their company operates from the inside out and could potentially offer valuable insider knowledge about how to get past security systems on your devices or networks. If you suspect someone has been attempting this type of attack on you or your employer’s computer systems (for example if you notice sudden changes in behavior among colleagues), it is best to contact authorities immediately before any damage can be done.

How to work hacking

When you think of hacking, you might think of computer crimes or identity theft. But hacking can be used for good, too. Hacking is simply using a computer to do something it wasn’t intended to do. This can be done by writing code or manipulating existing code. Here are some features of hacking that may surprise you.

  • Hackers can find security holes in software programs and network systems and report them so they can be fixed before they’re exploited.
  • Hackers often perform penetration testing on networks as well as performing vulnerability assessments to determine the likelihood that hackers will succeed if they attack a system.
  • Ethical hackers are hired to test networks and security systems before real hackers have the chance to find vulnerabilities.
  • Some hackathons include challenges that focus on software developers creating innovative solutions that help solve social problems with digital technology, such as homelessness or environmental sustainability issues. A hacker convention includes speakers who talk about everything from philosophy to security tools and how-to sessions. There’s also usually an expo hall where vendors sell products like hardware kits or their own custom hacking devices.
  • Finally, many people use hacker synonymously with computer programmer. In this sense, programmers can create new things out of pre-existing material by altering its form.

Types of hacking

There are many different types of hacking, each with its own unique features. Black hat hacking is the most common type of hacking, and is typically done for malicious purposes. White hat hacking is done for ethical reasons, such as finding security vulnerabilities in a system. Gray hat hacking falls somewhere in between black hat and white hat hacking, and may be done for either malicious or benevolent reasons. Black hat hackers use their skills to break into secure systems without permission, usually to steal sensitive information like credit card numbers or passwords.
White hat hackers use their skills to find and report any potential security risks before they can do any damage.
Gray hat hackers sometimes do both—white-hat hacking that they find themselves, but also breaking into secure systems without permission when it’s beneficial to them. That said, gray hat hackers might not always have malicious intent; there are cases where gray hats hack for good. For example, an average person might download malware from a website that poses as an antivirus program, then contact a white hat hacker who has the knowledge to remove the malware from their computer. A gray hat hacker would tell them how to get rid of the malware (and likely collect payment). But if someone tries to install ransomware on your computer, a gray hat hacker will probably only want to help you get your files back—no matter what it takes.

1 Phishing
2 DoS and DDoS
3 Bait and Switch
4 Cookie Theft
5 Virus, Trojan, Malware
6 ClickJacking Attacks
7 Fake WAP
8 Keylogger
9 Eavesdropping
10 Waterhole Attacks
11 SQL Injection
12 Brute Force Attacks
13 DNS Spoofing (DNS Cache Poisoning)
14 Cracking Passwords
15 White Hat Hackers
16 Black Hat Hackers
17 Gray Hat Hackers
18 Script Kiddies
19 Hacktivist
20 Malicious Insider/Whistle-Blower Hacker
21 Green Hat Hackers
22 Blue Hat Hackers
23 Red Hat Hackers State/Nation Sponsored Hackers
24 Elite Hackers
25 Cyber Terrorists

DoS and DDoS

A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is an attack meant to render a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users. This is usually done by flooding the target with requests until it can no longer keep up, and as a result, halts operation. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is similar, but uses multiple computers to launch the attack. By using many computers, a DDoS attacker can generate more traffic than a single DoS attacker. For example, let’s say that there are 10,000 machines on a network being used for the attack; each machine sends 100 packets per second. That would equate to 1 million packets per second total coming from all 10,000 machines combined. However, since this would be an unrealistic number of packets for one person to send at once in reality, many times DDoS attackers will use ‘botnets’—a group of already-infected computers that can be remotely controlled and give commands via IRC channels or other types of chat servers. These ‘zombie’ machines do not have any kind of sentience behind them; they simply blindly obey whatever commands they’re given from their master(s).

Bait and Switch

This is a type of hacking where the hacker uses a seemingly innocuous piece of bait to lure the victim into clicking on a link or opening an attachment. Once the victim takes the bait, they’re redirected to a malicious site or their device is infected with malware. Malware can be delivered in many ways, such as through phishing email attachments and browser hijackers that change the homepage and search engine settings without permission. Sometimes it’s installed when people click on pop-up ads promising free games or other software downloads.
In some cases, hackers will plant spyware that gathers sensitive information from your computer such as credit card numbers and login credentials and sends them back to the hacker. Other types of malware are designed to steal personal data like passwords and banking details by embedding itself onto a device. Such attacks are often called data breaches. However, not all data breaches are initiated by hackers – sometimes employees steal data for sale on the black market. To protect yourself against these threats, always update your antivirus program and keep your operating system up-to-date with security patches released by manufacturers.

Cookie Theft

One feature of hacking is cookie theft. This is when a hacker accesses a victim’s web browser and steals their cookies. Cookies store information like login credentials and preferences, so this can be a serious security breach. Hackers can use cookies to impersonate the victim, gain access to their accounts, and even commit fraud. If you’re worried about being hacked, there are a few steps you can take to secure your account. First, you should never enter your password on any site that isn’t trusted or well-known. Second, you should change your passwords often. And third, if possible always connect through a secure connection (e.g., HTTPS). Last but not least, make sure you have an up-to-date antivirus installed on your computer.

Virus, Trojan, Malware

A virus is a type of malware that is able to replicate itself and spread to other computers. A Trojan is a type of malware that disguises itself as something else in order to get past security measures. Malware is a catch-all term for any type of malicious software, including viruses, Trojans, and spyware. There are many different types of malware that can affect your computer’s performance or steal your personal information. Some examples include ransomware (a form of extortion), keyloggers (software designed to record keyboard input), and scareware (a type of misleading adware). Ransomware encrypts files on the user’s system, locking them out until they pay a ransom fee to the attacker. Spyware gathers sensitive data from the user such as usernames, passwords, bank account numbers, credit card numbers, etc., which it then sends back to the hacker.

ClickJacking Attacks

Also called UI redress attacks, clickjacking is when a hacker tricks a user into clicking on something that they didn’t intend to. This can be done by hiding the real button that the user is supposed to click on underneath another button or link. When the user clicks on the top button, they unknowingly perform the action that the hacker intended. Even if the user manages to notice this and cancels out of it, the damage has already been done. Sometimes hackers will do this with advertisements and make it seem like you’re getting an offer for a great deal but then you’ll find out you’ve actually signed up for an account with them without realizing it! With this type of attack, just one misclick could cost someone their information and money. It’s important to always double-check everything before proceeding, especially since many hackers are becoming more and more sophisticated in these types of hacks.
The majority of people are using the internet through computers so there are some additional hacking tactics that work specifically on computers. One is Botnets which are networks of malware-infected devices controlled by an outside hacker without the owner’s knowledge.

Fake WAP

A fake WAP is a Wireless Access Point that appears to be legitimate, but is actually created by a hacker in order to collect data or spread malware. Hackers can create fake WAPs that mimic the SSID and password of a real network, making it difficult for users to tell the difference. Once connected, the hacker can then intercept all traffic passing through the WAP, including sensitive data like passwords and credit card numbers. Fake WAPs can also be used to spread malware to devices that connect to them. When a user connects to the fake WAP, they are likely presented with an input screen where they enter their username and password. With this information, hackers can access any account on the device. When you’re using public Wi-Fi networks, make sure you always check your connection’s SSID and password before connecting to prevent being victim of these attacks.


A keylogger is a type of hacking software that tracks the keys pressed on a keyboard. This information can be used to steal passwords and other sensitive data. Keyloggers can be installed on a victim’s computer without their knowledge, making them a powerful tool for hackers. They’re typically hidden in malicious files or embedded in web pages.
A command prompt window will open and provide instructions on how to install the keylogger as well as its configuration settings. Many have an uninstall feature which will also provide instructions so it can be removed from the target device if desired. Users may be able to detect a keylogger by looking at the system’s processes and spotting something unfamiliar. Anti-virus programs may offer protection against this type of attack but they must first be updated with signatures specific to this threat in order to detect it before infection occurs.


When you think of hacking, you might think of someone breaking into a computer system to steal information. But hacking can also refer to unauthorized listening in on conversations. This is called eavesdropping and it’s one of the most common features of hacking. By intercepting communications, hackers can gather sensitive information like passwords, credit card numbers, and trade secrets. They can also disrupt systems by injecting false data or sabotaging legitimate traffic. There are many different types of hacking techniques, but all have these features in common:
Some forms involve exploiting vulnerabilities in hardware or software. A vulnerability is an error that makes a system susceptible to attack. It could be anything from an open port that allows access to the network to flaws in an operating system that attackers exploit with malware (malicious software).
Others require knowledge of how networks work so they can get past firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS) designed to keep intruders out. Hackers often rely on stealth to infiltrate organizations. They use a variety of techniques, including creating bogus websites, spamming e-mail messages, hijacking web pages and blog posts, as well as tricking people into clicking links that appear authentic but actually contain malicious code. Sometimes they even manipulate search engine results for their own benefit!
Another feature of hacking is exploitation. Hackers target weaknesses like wireless connectivity or unsecured wireless routers that allow them entry into your personal computers.

Waterhole Attacks

A waterhole attack is a type of targeted cyber attack that seeks to infect a specific group of users by compromising a website or app they frequently visit. This type of attack gets its name from the fact that it’s like poisoning a watering hole in the hopes that an animal will drink from it and become sick. Similarly, with a waterhole attack, hackers hope to infect as many people as possible by contaminating a site or app that many people use. In this way, hackers can get access to more data than they could through one compromised computer. For example, if someone has just one password on their computer, then the hacker might be able to break into their email account and read messages going back several years. But with a waterhole attack, the hacker may be able to break into other accounts associated with the same person because they have all been infected at the same time.
The difference between phishing and spear phishing: Phishing emails often ask for sensitive information such as your username and password. Spear phishing emails target particular individuals, companies, or organizations based on personal information collected by hackers.

SQL Injection

Cross-Site Scripting (five sentences): Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications. It allows an attacker to inject client-side script into web pages viewed by other users. XSS vulnerabilities allow attackers to bypass access controls such as the same origin policy and can be used to steal cookies and authentication credentials, perform phishing attacks, execute arbitrary code on the victim’s browser, or take control of the victim’s system
A common tactic used by hackers is cross-site scripting, which lets them make requests with the session cookie without having to have it themselves.

Brute Force Attacks

A brute force attack is a type of hacking where the attacker tries to gain access to a system or network by trying every possible combination of characters until they find the right one. This can be time-consuming, but if the attacker has enough patience, they will eventually find the right combination. Another way hackers try to break into systems is called Dictionaries and it involves using a word list with all possible passwords for their targets. The key for this method is to generate a large word list that includes many uncommon words that most people don’t use as passwords. Dictionary attacks are successful because so many people choose easy to remember combinations like password which are easy for the hacker to figure out. Dictionary attacks can also work because some sites have automated login procedures that require only a person’s username and password – no other information is required.

DNS Spoofing (DNS Cache Poisoning)

DNS spoofing, also known as DNS cache poisoning. is a type of hacking where an attacker changes the DNS records to redirect traffic from a legitimate website to a malicious one. This can be used to steal sensitive information or distribute malware. In most cases, this attack would need to have administrative privileges on the victim’s computer in order for it to work.DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service): A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack sends huge amounts of traffic from many different sources towards one destination in order to overload its capacity and deny service. These attacks are often done using compromised systems that were infected with malware and hijacked without their owners’ knowledge, but they can also be done by an individual who knows how to configure multiple computers at once. DDoS attacks are considered much more dangerous than phishing because of their potential size. For example, if someone wanted to take down Amazon Prime during peak shopping season by launching a DDoS attack against it, they could likely generate enough traffic from their own devices to do so successfully.

Cracking Passwords

One of the most common features of hacking is cracking passwords. This is done by using a program that runs through all possible combinations until it finds the correct one. This can be time-consuming, but it’s often the only way to gain access to an account. A password strength checker, on the other hand, can determine how strong your password is in seconds and give you tips. on how to make it stronger. Passwords should be at least 8 characters long, include both letters and numbers. as well as special characters such as !@#$%^&*()_+ ]{} ]. It may seem like it’s easier to use a weaker password than one that’s complicated, but the opposite is true: using complex passwords not only makes them more difficult for hackers to crack, they also force you to think about what you’re doing when you create them which will help prevent typos and forgotten passwords.

White Hat Hackers

A white hat hacker is an ethical hacker, or a penetration tester, who specializes in finding security vulnerabilities in software and systems. White hat hackers use their skills to improve security by finding and fixing vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious hackers. They do not steal information, but instead work with the organization. that owns the system being tested to provide secure recommendations on how to fix any vulnerabilities found. Here are five things you might not know about hacking. 1) There’s no such thing as 100% security: The most important thing to remember. when talking about cyber-security is that there will always be vulnerabilities. That’s because no one knows what the next threat will look like until. it emerges and attacks our systems. As new threats emerge, defenders need to keep up with evolving defense mechanisms–and we’ll never get ahead of every new attack vector.

Black Hat Hackers

A black hat hacker is someone who breaks into computer systems in order to do harm. They may do this for personal gain, such as stealing information or money. or they may do it for political reasons. Black hat hackers are usually very skilled and have a deep understanding of how computer systems work. There are many different types of hacking which use different methods to obtain the desired result. The most common method is known as brute force hacking. which uses various tools to guess every possible password until one works. Social engineering can also be used by sending an email that contains malware and waiting for the victim to open it. The other two features are phishing and spear phishing which both involve tricking people into doing something dangerous on their computers. Phishing involves creating emails that look like they come from a trustworthy source. so the recipient will give up their passwords or enter sensitive information on a website that appears safe but is actually controlled by the hacker. Spear phishing involves much more sophisticated targeting than phishing, typically involving research about a specific person’s interests so the email will seem more credible.

Gray Hat Hackers

A gray hat hacker is someone who may not have the best intentions, but doesn’t necessarily break the law. They may push the boundaries of what’s considered ethical, but they don’t typically engage in criminal activity. If a hacker breaks into a computer system with malicious intent. it would be black hat hacking. Gray hat hackers may help find and fix flaws in a company’s software or network security so that no one else can exploit them.
The Top Five Ways to Hack One method for gaining access to information without authorization is called Social Engineering. In this attack, an attacker masquerades as an authorized user or a trusted organization and tricks people into revealing sensitive information about themselves and the organization such as passwords, confidential records, account numbers etc.

Script Kiddies

A script kiddie or skiddie is an unskilled individual who uses scripts or programs created by others to attack computer systems. and networks and deface websites. Though they may not have the skills to write their own hacking tools, they are still dangerous because they can easily launch attacks that can do serious damage. To defend against them, organizations should install firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), anti-virus software, and patches to prevent infection. They should also implement good access control policies (ACLs) for their networked devices such as computers and servers so that only authorized users can access these devices. Once a hacker has gained unauthorized access to a device on a network, it’s possible that they could steal data from the organization. Therefore, regular backups of all data should be taken in case something happens to the original data. Furthermore, it’s important to use strong passwords with long character sets when creating accounts for new employees since this helps reduce the risk of being hacked.


A hacktivist is someone who uses hacking to promote a political or social agenda. While some hacktivists may engage in illegal activities, others may simply use their skills to raise awareness about issues they care about. Hacktivism can be a powerful tool for bringing attention to important issues and sparking change. For example, the group Anonymous was credited with helping to ignite the Arab Spring uprisings. Since then, Anonymous has been involved in dozens of other high-profile campaigns around the world on issues such as free speech and freedom of information laws. And it’s not just for activist causes; hackers are also sometimes employed by governments, militaries, and corporations to perform cyber attacks against adversaries in times of war. These hackers are often referred to as ‘white hat’ hackers because they act ethically rather than illegally.

Malicious Insider/Whistle-Blower Hacker

A malicious insider, or whistle-blower hacker, is someone. who has legitimate access to an organization’s network but uses that access to exploit vulnerabilities and steal data. This type of hacker is often motivated by revenge or financial gain. An example would be Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor who stole over 1.5 million classified documents from the NSA in 2013 and leaked them to journalists in order to reveal how the U.S. government. was spying on its own citizens without their knowledge. He fled the United States and sought asylum in Russia before being granted asylum in Ecuador because he faced criminal charges for his actions back home. Another example of a malicious insider/whistle-blower hacker is Harold Thomas Martin III, 51, who worked as a contractor. with Booz Allen Hamilton. He was arrested by the FBI at his home in Glen Burnie, Maryland on August 27th 2017 after it emerged that he had been stealing and retaining highly sensitive information about US intelligence since 1996. The intelligence includes some of America’s most guarded secrets – codes developed to break into computer systems and software used by American troops abroad.

Green Hat Hackers

Green hat hackers are the newbies, or you can say, inexperienced ones in the field of hacking. They are not familiar with the security mechanisms and inner workings of the web.

Green hat hackers lack experience, but they have a deep hunger to learn the techniques to go up in the rank list. They are not necessarily threat actors but can cause harm while practicing their design.

Sometimes, they are dangerous as they do not know the outcomes. These can cause the worst case that can be difficult to resolve.

Blue Hat Hackers

Blue hat hackers are different from other hackers as they do not target an organization’s network. and system to steal something. They are revenge seekers who hack computer systems to take personal revenge on an organization.

They use techniques to gain access to various accounts or emails. Once they have the information, they start to exploit the profiles by sending inappropriate messages, etc. Sometimes, ex-employees hack companies’ servers to steal information like confidential data and release all the information to the public to damage reputation.

Red Hat Hackers State/Nation Sponsored Hackers

Red Hat Hackers are state or nation sponsored hackers who work within the law to test systems for vulnerabilities. They are usually white hat hackers who have been contracted by the government to find holes in systems so that they can be fixed before black hat hackers exploit them. Red Hat Hackers are often found working with government agencies, and since their hacking is legal, there is no need for a trial after being caught.
A lot of what Red Hat Hackers do involves breaking into websites, but unlike other hackers, they use their skills for good instead of personal gain.
Red Hat Hacking includes white hat hacking and black hat hacking–they break into computers but only to fix any security flaws.

Elite Hackers

There are many features of hacking that make it an attractive profession for some people. Firstly, hacking can be a very lucrative career. Many hackers make six figures or more per year. Secondly, hacking can be a lot of fun. Many hackers enjoy the challenge of trying to outsmart security systems. Thirdly, hacking can be a way to get revenge on someone who has wronged you. Fourthly, hacking can be a way to help people. When hackers find vulnerabilities in software, they may report them to the company instead of exploiting them. Fifthly, hacking can be part of your identity. A hacker’s lifestyle is often one of freedom and self-expression which could appeal to some people. However, hacking does come with significant risks such as being fined or going to jail if caught. Therefore, whether or not hacking is right for you depends on what kind of person you are and what kind of future you want for yourself.

Cyber Terrorists

In this day and age, cyber terrorists are a real and present danger. They can hack into systems and wreak havoc, often without being detected. Here are the top five features of hacking you may not be aware of. 1) A great way to spy on someone. Hackers can hack into people’s phones, computers, and bank accounts with little difficulty. Once they have control over someone’s digital life, they’re able to see everything that person does online or in their banking transactions. – it’s like spying on them 24/7! 2) A new form of warfare: Hackers are developing more and more sophisticated ways to attack government agencies like the Pentagon and other military installations. They could also cause physical damage by taking control of vital equipment, such as power plants and pipelines. 3) It pays well: Hacker salaries range from $30k-$100k annually. 4)
You don’t need a college degree: Contrary to popular belief, hackers don’t necessarily need an extensive background in computer science. or even education at all for that matter. And some universities now offer courses in hacking for those who want to learn how to do it themselves.


Hacking is a growing problem in our world today. By understanding the features of hacking, we can better protect ourselves from becoming victims. 1) Hackers can target anyone, anywhere. 2) They can steal your personal information and use it to commit identity theft. 3) They can hijack your computer and use it to launch attacks on other computers. 4) They can disable your computer or even delete all your files. 5) They can even take control of your entire network. 6) The best way to prevent these attacks is by learning how hackers think and preparing yourself with knowledge. 7) The best way to defend against hackers is with an IT security plan that takes into account the five major points:

  • Prevention – Detection – Response – Recovery – Mitigation

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